https://gijmss.com.ng/index.php/gijmss/issue/feed Gusau International Journal of Management and Social Sciences 2024-03-03T09:40:11+00:00 Dr. Bashir Umar Faruk editor@gijmss.com.ng Open Journal Systems <p>Gusau International Journal of Management and Social Sciences (GIJMSS) is a biannual (October and April) academic journal, which welcomes contribution from the diverse fields of Management and Social Sciences. The mission is to publish high quality papers from all over the world and make GIJMSS a high ranked journal.</p> <p>GIJMSS adheres to a rigorous double-blind reviewing policy and all submissions are evaluated initially by the Editorial Board and only those papers that meet the specific and editorial standard of the journal, and fits within its aims and scopes will be subjected to blind review. The Editorial Board reserves the right to modify part of the papers adjudged acceptable for publication.</p> https://gijmss.com.ng/index.php/gijmss/article/view/177 Analyzing the Impact of Liability Insurance on the Financial Performance of Insurance Companies in Nigeria 2024-02-02T20:33:57+00:00 O. Augustine Isimoya oisimoya@unilag.edu.ng Taiwo Olarinre Oluwaleye taiwo.oluwaleye@eksu.edu.ng <p><em>The insurance sector reforms in Nigeria sought to create a strong, diverse, and trustworthy industry that protects insured premiums, actively contributes to the country's economic progress, and participates in worldwide financial systems. Despite this development, insurance business operations and survival have not been impressive, and performance remains alarmingly poor. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of workers' compensation written premiums and workers' compensation claims paid of the chosen insurance companies' return on assets (ROA) in Nigeria. This study is a longitudinal research design. Secondary data obtained from the financial statement of five selected insurance firms in Nigeria over the year 2013 to 2022 were analysed with correlation analysis and panel regression estimation technique. The result of the study, based on Hausman verification, showed that workers' compensation written premium has a significant positive effect on RoA and that workers' compensation claims paid has a significant negative effect on RoA in Nigeria. Consequently, this investigation established that liability insurance is an important factor that may have been disturbing the performance of insurance firms in Nigeria, and must be treated with utmost care in the process of enhancing performance. Therefore, this study recommended among others that insurance firms need to increase the rate of client application towards workers' compensation insurance to realize increased levels of premium and income for performance-enhancing operations.</em></p> 2024-02-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) https://gijmss.com.ng/index.php/gijmss/article/view/178 The Impact of Environmental Management Strategies on Firm's Performance in Banking Industry: A Case Study of three Selected Banks (United Bank for Africa, Heritage Bank and Lotus Bank) 2024-02-02T21:04:39+00:00 S. A. Adebisi tuneeyo@hotmail.com P. S. Okonji tuneeyo@hotmail.com D. A. Adeeyo tuneeyo@hotmail.com K. N. Ezebuiro tuneeyo@hotmail.com <p><em>The objective of this research is to examine the impact of Environmental Management Strategies (EMS) on the performance of Nigerian banks. The study focuses on three key components of EMS, namely green financing initiatives, environmental risk management practises, and sustainable product offers. The study employed purposive sampling to gather data from high-ranking workers of three well-established institutions, namely United Bank for Africa, Heritage Bank, and Lotus Bank. The study collected both quantitative and qualitative data from study participants. The quantitative data was analysed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) within the SMARTPLS3 software. On the other hand, thematic analysis was used to analyse the qualitative data. Finally, the study used triangulation method to draw comprehensive conclusions. The results indicate that the implementation of green financing initiatives and environmental risk management practises have a noteworthy and favourable impact on the overall performance of banks operating in Nigeria. The inclusion of sustainable product offers has been shown to have a notable and favourable effect on performance, underscoring the strategic significance of aligning financial products with sustainability objectives. The aforementioned findings highlight the significant importance of EMS in augmenting financial performance, protecting reputations, and establishing Nigerian banks as frontrunners in the realm of sustainable banking practises. The study recommends that policy makers should develop or revise regulatory frameworks to incentivize banks to integrate effective environmental management strategies into their operations, aligning with international sustainability standards. </em></p> 2023-10-23T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) https://gijmss.com.ng/index.php/gijmss/article/view/179 Moderating Effect of Dominant Logic on the Relationship between Innovation Capability and SMEs Performance in Abuja 2024-02-03T14:09:11+00:00 A. Asoro Adeola adeolaajaratabidemi@gmail.com MI Aminu miaminuscholar@yahoo.com Bello Sabo sabobello@gmail.com <p><em>Performance of SMEs in today's dynamic business environment is crucial for the development of any economy. However, there are still obstacles hindering the expected optimal performance of the sector. The objective of this study therefore, is to examine the moderating role of dominant logic on the relationship between product innovation, marketing innovation and firm performance among SMEs in Three local governments (Abaji, AMAC and Kuje) in Abuja. A sample of 235 questionnaires was analyzed using Structural Equation Modelling. The result indicated that, in the direct relationship, Marketing Innovation and Dominant Logic have significant effect on SMEs performance, while the direct relationship between Product Innovation and Performance was found not to be significant. It was further found that Dominant Logic significantly moderates the relationship between Product Innovation and Firm Performance. On the other hand, Dominant Logic does not significantly moderate the relationship between Marketing Innovation and SMEs performance. The study therefore recommends that businesses should ensure managerial cognition are well defined and communicated at all levels, so as to improve product innovation. Also, there is need to emphasize the idea behind new trends so as to come up with a befitting marketing innovation that makes their business stand out by delivering quality service in the most cost effective manner&nbsp; which will in turn enhance their performance.</em></p> 2023-10-23T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) https://gijmss.com.ng/index.php/gijmss/article/view/180 Effect of Diversity Management on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour: The Moderating Role of Perceived Organisational Justice 2024-02-03T16:49:43+00:00 Danladi Bala baladanladi95@gmail.com Nocha Danlami Gajere baladanladi95@gmail.com Emmanuel Adamu Ali baladanladi95@gmail.com Muhammad Musa Abubakar baladanladi95@gmail.com <p><em>Record has established that there is issue of organisational citizenship behaviour in public health service sector in Taraba State which has affected the functionality of the sector. It is on this note that this study examined the moderating role of perceived organisational justice on the relationship between diversity management and organisational citizenship behavior in public hospital. The study used cross sectional research design and the instrument for collecting data is via questionnaires with the help of research assistants, the population of the study is 1900 and the actual sample for data analysis is 315. The result of the analysis has proven that, individual diversity management has no significant effect on employee organisational citizenship behavior both on direct and on an interacting relationship. However, organisation diversity management has a positive and significant effect on citizenship behaviour both on direct and indirect relationship respectively. Base on the findings of the study it was recommended that management and stakeholders of public health care sector should take both individual and organisation diversity into due consideration at all levels of health sector, so as to motivate employee of this sector to engage on positive behavior such as organisational citizenship behavior which will in turn improve the performance of this sector as a whole.</em></p> 2023-10-23T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) https://gijmss.com.ng/index.php/gijmss/article/view/181 An Analysis of Product Innovation and Competitive Advantage in Selected Plastic Manufacturing Industries in Onitsha, Anambra State, Nigeria 2024-02-03T17:24:34+00:00 Lucky Edafetano Oboreh oborehlucky2014@gmail.com Ajiri Peter Samuel samuelajiri@gmail.com <p><em>This study examined product innovation and competitive advantage in selected plastic manufacturing industries in Onitsha. The precise goals of this study are to ascertain the contribution of sensing capability, seizing capability, and transformation capability to the achievement of competitive advantage. The dynamic capability theory underlies this investigation. The study used a descriptive research design for its study. Personnel from four specific Onitsha plastic factories make up the study's population of 168. Taro Yamane’s formula was employed to get a sample size of 120. The study's data were produced using a structured questionnaire. Primary data were collected from the respondent</em>. <em>The data gathered were analyzed using multiple regression method. The study found that sensing capability, seizing capability and transforming capability had significant positive relationship with competitive advantage. The study concludes that product innovation has significant positive relationship with competitive advantage in plastic manufacturing industries in Onitsha. </em><em>The study made several recommendations, including that businesses constantly strive to invest in diverse new product ideas and improve the existing products in order to get a competitive advantage over rivals.</em></p> 2023-10-23T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) https://gijmss.com.ng/index.php/gijmss/article/view/182 Evaluation of the Nigerian Startup Act 2022 in redefining SME growth in Nigeria: The Pros and Cons 2024-02-03T17:34:19+00:00 Sunday Abayomi Adebisi osofavor@yahoo.com Olufemi Ebenezer Osobu osofavor@yahoo.com <p><em>This study </em><em>evaluated the influence of the </em><em>Nigerian Startup Act 2022 (NSA) in redefining SME growth in Nigeria. The study used a quantitative research method which involves a cross-sectional research design and a structured survey that was used in to elicit information from one hundred and twenty (120) respondents. The study made use of a multi-stage sampling technique. Meanwhile, descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) were used to proffer answers to the research questions, correlation analysis helped in determining the relationship existing between the variables, while multiple regressions used in testing the hypotheses. The study found that implementation of the objectives of the Nigerian Startup Act will not redefine SME growth in Nigeria. Conversely, the perceived benefit of NSA will positively influence SMEs growth and the unintended consequences negatively influence the SME growth. The study recommends the need for the National Council for digital innovation to review the objectives of the NSA and ensure the right structures and machineries are put in place.</em></p> 2023-10-23T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) https://gijmss.com.ng/index.php/gijmss/article/view/183 Assessing the Impact of Financial Accessibility on Small and Medium Enterprises’ Profitability 2024-02-03T17:38:51+00:00 Wisdom Andrew Azzuwut azzuwutw@gmail.com Bello Sabo sabobello@gmail.com Tijani Bashir sabobello@gmail.com <p><em>In a developing nation like Nigeria, small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) have had a difficult time in accessing banking services especially when trying to acquire external financing, they encounter several difficulties. This is due to low level of financial literacy among SMEs owners and Managers. SMEs in Nigeria‘s Plateau State make up the study population. According to SMEDAN‘s estimates from 2021 there were 14558 registered SMEs in Nigeria‘s Plateau State. The study employed a survey research approach, in which 316 questionnaires were utilized to collect primary data using the convenient sampling technique. The study particularly used a multivariate regression model. The results of the research on assessing the impact of financial accessibility on small and medium enterprises profitability showed a strong positive correlation between profitability of SMEs and loan, overdraft, collateral requirement, and size. As a result, the study suggests that owner’s managers of SMEs in developing economies with limited finances should consider recapitalizing their businesses through more finances from existing financial service providers such as banks and should have more capacity building to have better access to finance.&nbsp; </em></p> 2023-10-23T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) https://gijmss.com.ng/index.php/gijmss/article/view/189 Women Entrepreneurship, Employment and Income nexus: A Study on Women Entrepreneurs in Dutsin-Ma Town, Katsina State 2024-02-19T16:53:27+00:00 Zainab Dahiru Wowo zdwowo@fudutsinma.edu.ng Jamilu Sani Garba zdwowo@fudutsinma.edu.ng Saifullahi Sani Ibrahim zdwowo@fudutsinma.edu.ng <p><em>Women have been participating in economic activities informally through ownership of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMES) with less recognition in the society. This study intends to examine the link among women enterpreneurship, employment and income nexus in Dutsin-Ma town of Katsina State. The data used in the study were collected among 100 women enterpreneurs in Dutsin-Ma through self-designed questionnaire based on systematic probability sampling. ANCOVA regression is applied based on the Keynesian theory of income, output and employment. Based on the regression results, it reveals that women entrepreneurs in Dutsin-Ma town of Katsina State are dominantly married and Muslim, possessing non-formal education with more than 10 person family size. The result indicated that the mean daily earning of average woman entrepreneur in Dutsin-Ma town is N50 increases daily by N10 with employment of an additional worker. Also, daily earning of average woman entrepreneur increases by N0.25 as entrepreneurial skills increases with an additional training. Lastly, the study recommends for the government commitment to motivate women entrepreneurs on more employment of women workers by relieving their cost of production via tax reduction.</em></p> 2023-10-23T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) https://gijmss.com.ng/index.php/gijmss/article/view/190 Analysis of the Relationship between Interest Rate, Exchange Rate and Economic Growth in Nigeria 2024-02-20T15:57:58+00:00 Nwikina Christian Gbarawae cgnwikina@gmail.com THANKGOD TONYE TONYE cgnwikina@gmail.com <p><em>This study analyses the relationship between interest rate, exchange rate and economic growth in Nigeria spanning from 1980-2022. Data for the study were obtained from World Development Indicators. The study undertook unit root test using the Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) method. Consequently, based on the outcome of the ADF result, the research used Auto-regressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) model to determine the existence of a long-run interactive relationship between interest rate, exchange rate, and economic growth in Nigeria. The Auto-regressive distributive Lag (ARDL) bound test result of the long-run interactive relationship between the variables reported the existence of long-run relationship. The study further revealed that the interaction between real interest rate and exchange rate on growth of gross domestic product is negative, but statistically significant both in the long-run and previous period of the short-run. Similarly, the interaction between lending interest rate and exchange rate is negatively related with growth of gross domestic in the long-run. However, deposit interest rate and exchange rate recounted a positive but insignificant interactive relationship. It has been suggested, among other recommendations, that the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), should raise deposit interest rate in order to incentivize individuals to save a greater portion of their income. This will enable financial institutions to enhance their capacity to allocate more cash towards investment, thereby fostering economic growth.</em></p> 2023-10-23T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) https://gijmss.com.ng/index.php/gijmss/article/view/191 Funding the Nigerian Agricultural Sector for Improved Performance: The Role of Migrant Workers’ Foreign Remittances Inflows 2024-02-20T16:15:30+00:00 Clement Korgbeelo clementkorgbeelo@gmail.com <p><em>Although there is a plethora of empirical evidence on the impact of foreign remittances inflows on economic growth in Nigeria, there are few studies that investigated the impact of foreign remittances on agricultural sector performance in the country. This study therefore examined the impact of funding on the performance of the agricultural sector in Nigeria with emphasis on the role of foreign remittances inflows. Specifically, the study investigated the impact of foreign remittances inflows, government expenditure on agriculture, bank credit to agriculture, the Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund, and exchange rate on agricultural sector output performance in Nigeria. Exchange rate was used as a control variable. The Johansen co-integration test, Error Correction Mechanism (ECM), and Granger causality test were used to estimate the annual time-series data for the period of 1981 to 2021. The findings from the study revealed that foreign remittances inflows, government expenditure on agriculture, and loans guaranteed under the Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSE) have significant positive impact on agricultural sector performance. On the other hand, bank credits to agriculture and exchange rate have insignificant negative impact on agricultural sector performance. Among other things, it is recommended that recipients of foreign remittances in Nigeria should be encouraged to invest more in the agricultural sector.</em></p> 2023-10-23T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) https://gijmss.com.ng/index.php/gijmss/article/view/195 Oil Price Volatility and Federal Government Recurrent Expenditure in Nigeria: Mediating Role of Exchange Rate 2024-03-03T08:58:31+00:00 Chioma O Ojukwu chioma.ojukwu@uniport.edu.ng Nsisong Boniface Udokang chioma.ojukwu@uniport.edu.ng <p><em>An empirical examination of the impact of oil price volatility on federal government recurrent expenditure in Nigeria and the mediating role of exchange rate from 1980 to 2022 was carried out in this study. The Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model was used in the data analysis</em><em>. </em><em>The findings reveal compelling evidence that oil price volatility as measured using the Brent oil volatility has a significant effect on recurrent federal government spending patterns. The analysis also shows </em><em>that exchange rate variations serve as significant control variable that influence oil price fluctuations and federal government recurrent expenditure.</em><em> Hence, the study recommends that federal government should create and properly administer a stabilization fund to save excess oil revenue during periods of boom to lessen the immediate effects of oil price volatility and the abrupt impact on budgetary allocations on recurrent expenditure. </em><em>There is also the need to</em><em> have a deep-cut on unproductive recurrent expenditures by federal government and its appointees. The study further recommends the adoption of a closely monitored exchange rate policy by government.</em></p> 2023-10-23T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) https://gijmss.com.ng/index.php/gijmss/article/view/196 Nexus between Family Environment and Entrepreneurial Intentions of Students in the Faculty of Management Sciences, Veritas University, Abuja 2024-03-03T09:05:53+00:00 Kizito Babatunde Olaniyi kizitundey@gmail.com Kenneth Chukwujioke Agbim kennethagbim2012@gmail.com Timothy Idowu Adeyemo timothyadeyemo11@gmail.com <p><em>There is a </em><em>general apathy towards entrepreneurial activities among students in the Faculty of Management Sciences, Veritas University, Abuja.</em><em> Unarguably, this lack of enthusiasm is traceable to the general </em><em>moral decadence among youths in both the family environments and university environments.</em><em> This is occasioned by the increasing failure of parents to properly bring up their children/wards particularly with the intent of making them self-reliant. Consequently, with a special focus on the family, it is important to understand the role of the family environment in triggering the dimensions of entrepreneurial intentions (i.e., personal attitude towards a behaviour, subjective norms and perceived behaviour control</em><em>)</em><em> in students.</em> <em>The study adopted a cross-sectional survey research design, and employed a combination of census method, a criterion sampling technique and questionnaire to collect data from 100 to 400 level students in the six departments in the faculty. A criterion sampling technique was employed to select the sample size of 115 students from the population of 279 students. The criteria for selection are that: (i) the parents work in or own a family business; (ii) that the student was partly or wholly involved in a family business; and (iii) the student actively participated in the previous entrepreneurship courses he/she had taken. The generated data were subjected to Pearson product moment correlation. The relationships between </em><em>family environment, and </em><em>personal attitude towards a behaviour, subjective norms and perceived behaviour control were found to be positive and </em><em>significant.</em><em> The study recommends empowerment of families to create new or expand existing family businesses. Again, family members, including students, should be involved in the running, management and control of such businesses from an early age. </em></p> 2023-10-23T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) https://gijmss.com.ng/index.php/gijmss/article/view/197 Inflation Dynamics and Food Prices in Nigeria 2024-03-03T09:13:59+00:00 El-Rasheed Shehu selrasheed2017@gmail.com Bello Muhammad Abdullahi selrasheed2017@gmail.com Abdullateef Mustapha selrasheed2017@gmail.com <p><em>In Nigeria, inflation dynamics and food prices have been a major concern for policymakers and the public alike. In recent years, the country has experienced a surge in food prices, which has contributed to the rise in inflation. This study employs the linear autoregressive distributive lag model to investigate inflation dynamics and food prices in Nigeria, with a specific focus on identifying the fundamental factors driving the increase in food prices. Using annual data from 1990 to 2021, the study examines the relationships between oil price, exchange rate, money supply, and government expenditure, and their varying long- and short-term effects on inflation and food prices in Nigeria. The Bound test cointegration results confirm that the variables are cointegrated, highlighting the presence of a long-term relationship among them. Our findings reveal that higher oil prices exert a short-term large positive influence on food prices, but their long-term impact is negligible. Conversely, increased money supply significantly impacts food prices in both the short and long term. Additionally, an increased exchange rate inversely impacts food prices in the long-term. These results highlight crucial policy implications for curbing food price increases, reducing the welfare effects while, maintaining lower prices and ensuring its sustainability.</em></p> 2023-10-23T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) https://gijmss.com.ng/index.php/gijmss/article/view/198 Assessing Farmers’ Behavioural Metrics, Participatory Influences, and Demand-side Barriers of Agricultural Insurance in South-West, Nigeria 2024-03-03T09:22:50+00:00 Samson Ifejionu NWANKWO sunday.ajemunigbohun@lasu.edu.ng Sunday Stephen AJEMUNIGBOHUN sunday.ajemunigbohun@lasu.edu.ng <p><em>Agriculture is critical to economic prosperity of Nigeria and to a large extent, the economic wellbeing of Africa. However, this paper evaluated the judgments of farmers regarding agricultural insurance on the basis of their behavioural metrics, participatory influences, and demand<strong>-</strong>side barriers in Nigeria. The study employed descriptive cross- sectional design coupled with survey approach. A structured questionnaire was developed in Google form and posted electronically via the WhatsApp created to which registered farmers were added. This study, therefore, captured the thoughts, experiences, and observations of the selected farmers in Nigeria. This study found that farmers’ desires and patronage toward agricultural insurance policies had been positively initiated in terms of awareness, knowledge, and preference for agricultural insurance, while negatively affected in terms of their experiences. Thus, while the farmers’ genders are unimportant, farmers’ family sizes, and farmers’ ages were both slightly important, farmers’ formal education and experiences were considered moderate influencers, access to credit and insurance experts showed the highest probability of importance to farmers’ participations in agricultural insurance. Conclusively, the unavailability of government subsidies to farmers affirmed strongly that 68.8 percent stand out as the greatest barrier to demand for agricultural insurance. This study suggests that tailored-made agricultural insurance policies which embed access to low interest credit facilities from agricultural bank be designed to boost farmers’ economics of scale in Nigeria.</em></p> 2023-10-23T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) https://gijmss.com.ng/index.php/gijmss/article/view/200 Assessing the Efficacy of Marijuana Prevention Initiatives for Promoting Students' Well-Being at Lagos State University 2024-03-03T09:31:26+00:00 Tinuke FAPOHUNDA r.azeez2002@gmail.com Sehilat BOLARINWA r.azeez2002@gmail.com Rasheed AZEEZ r.azeez2002@gmail.com <p><em>This study assessed the efficacy of marijuana prevention initiatives for a drug-free university campus with a focus on Lagos State University. The study used the descriptive survey research design. With the aid of the convenience sampling technique, out of a population of 500 sampled students, responses were obtained from 432 respondents and were used for final analysis. Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework, descriptive statistics and content analysis were adopted to analyse the collected and collated data. Results showed that there exists a notable lack of awareness among the majority of the respondents (62.3%) regarding marijuana prevention programs or initiatives at Lagos State University. Also, the study highlights the potential health and social risks associated with marijuana use, emphasizing the importance of proactive prevention efforts. These risks include impaired cognitive function, mental health issues, strained interpersonal relationships, and legal consequences. </em><em>As a result of these findings, </em><em>the study concluded by noting the pressing need for enhanced and consistent educational efforts, particularly through awareness campaigns during student orientation programs and the utilization of diverse communication channels. </em><em>It is recommended amongst others, that </em><em>Lagos State University implement regular awareness campaigns using diverse communication channels such as social media, workshops, seminars, and posters as well as enhance and promote the services of the university’s counselling unit to ensure that students are aware of the available support for substance use issues. </em></p> 2023-10-23T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) https://gijmss.com.ng/index.php/gijmss/article/view/201 Analysis of the Petroleum Industry Act and its impact on the Nigerian Oil and Gas Sector 2024-03-03T09:40:11+00:00 Sunday Abayomi Adebisi kezebuiro@yahoo.com Kelechukwu Nodirim Ezebuiro kezebuiro@yahoo.com <p><em>The research analyzed the Petroleum industry Act and how the new law has impacted various actors in the Nigerian Oil and Gas Sector. This research was conducted using a doctrinal legal research approach which was backed by a contextual legal framework that include citations to online sources, literature reviews, case studies analysis, and an assessment of key judicial enactments. In conducting this library-based study, primary and secondary legal sources as well as pertinent existing literature on Petroleum Industry Act 2021 were explored. Various conceptual, empirical and theoretical frameworks such as Resource Curse, Domanial and Sustainable Development theories were used to support the research work. At the end&nbsp; the study,&nbsp; was able to find out that the Act established a framework for effective legal, regulatory and fiscal governance of the Upstream, Midstream, Downstream and the Host Communities, even though there were gaps which the Act left to be filled. Finally the study recommended that Gas flaring should be stopped; host community trust fund resources should be properly managed; Payment of 3% for upstream exploration revenue to host community should be reviewed upwards while 30% for frontier exploration should be reduced.</em></p> 2023-10-23T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s)